A bill to approve the long awaited Keystone XL pipeline died in the Senate Tuesday, one vote shy of blocking a filibuster.
All 45 Senate Republicans and 14 Democrats supported the legislation.
The bill had passed with a comfortable majority in the House of Representatives last week.
Republicans vowed to reintroduce the bill when they take control of Congress in January.
Federal regulators and lawmakers have been debating whether to approve the $8 billion Keystone XL for the past six years.
President Obama said he is waiting for the State Department to finish its evaluation of the proposed pipeline before making a final decision.
The State Department has not disclosed when the evaluation is expected to be finished.
TransCanada said last week that regulatory delays have spiked costs for its Keystone XL crude pipeline up to $8.4 billion, up from previous estimates of $5.4 billion.
Calgary-based TransCanada must also win approval from the Nebraska State Supreme Court and the South Dakota Public Utilities Commission.
Earlier this year the U.S. State Department released a key assessment of the pipeline that concluded the project would have a limited environmental impact.
The Keystone XL pipeline would stretch 1,179-mile from Hardisty, Alberta to to Steele City, Nebraska located just north of the Cushing oil hub.
The U.S. leg of the pipeline would run 875 miles from Morgan, Montana to Steele City.